[All About Exynos] ③ A Deeper Take a look at Modem, Connectivity and Safety in Telecommunication – Samsung International Newsroom



Supporting Quick, Easy Telecommunication Anyplace: The Extremely-Excessive Performing Modem with AI Expertise


The time period “modem” encompasses every type, from the dial-up modems used within the Nineteen Nineties to attach PCs to the Web, to wired communication modems like digital subscriber line (DSL) and cable, to wi-fi communication modems for mobile service and Wi-Fi. Nevertheless, after we speak about modems immediately within the cell business, the time period normally refers to mobile modems for wi-fi communication that help LTE and 5G.


In a smartphone, the terminal modem is in control of making calls and transmitting and receiving information by exchanging indicators with base stations. The rationale we will make calls and seamlessly watch movies anyplace is all because of high-performing mobile modems. In the present day, the newest mobile modems help applied sciences from 2G to 5G. 


Mobile modems have been first used for 1G when solely telephone calls could possibly be made utilizing the analog communication methodology. Within the 2G period, the digital communication methodology1 was launched, and extra companies such because the brief message service (SMS) turned doable. 3G enabled using the Web on cell phones, laying the inspiration for cell broadband,2 and 4G ushered within the true cell broadband period that made seamlessly watching HD movies doable. The velocity of 5G, which Korea was first on the planet to commercialize in 2019, now reaches the 10Gbps stage, and varied functions aside from cell units are being created utilizing this low-latency and hyper-connectivity expertise. 


▲ A comparability of the traits of various cell communication generations.


With the arrival of the LTE period, information transmission speeds have grow to be remarkably greater, and cell phones can now present capabilities virtually similar to these supplied by computer systems. Having experimented with growing its personal modem earlier than the 2000s, Samsung Electronics started growing an LTE modem chip in earnest in 2007 and have become the primary on the planet to achieve LTE modem commercialization in 2009, after mastering 2G and 3G applied sciences.


▲ The communication course of between a modem and a base station.


In 2012, the Galaxy S sequence was geared up with Samsung’s LTE modems for the primary time. In 2019, the 5G-integrated SoC Exynos, the primary ever chip to mix a 5G communication modem and a cell AP, was developed. Exynos improved vitality effectivity by combining two chips with totally different capabilities into one in addition to the benefit of design for smartphone producers by decreasing the world taken up by the element. At the moment, Exynos’ 5G3 modem helps not solely the sub-6GHz band but in addition extraordinarily excessive frequency bands (i.e., mmWave), equivalent to 28GHz and 39GHz. Because of this, sub-6GHz will increase service protection, and ultra-high-speed communication is obtainable with mmWave close to base stations. 


In the present day, Samsung is likely one of the world’s prime three 5G modem design firms. “Usually, the method for growing a modem is sophisticated as a result of it should help new expertise like 5G and already commercialized applied sciences like 3G and LTE. Because it additionally requires a major funding, there are solely a handful of modem chip firms on the planet,” mentioned Vice President Jungwon Lee, a sign processing professional who at present leads the Modem Improvement Workforce within the System LSI Enterprise after working at Samsung DS America and at Samsung Analysis America. “It’s an space that additionally requires quite a lot of improvement time, from algorithm improvement to chip design, software program improvement and area testing.”


▲ Vice President Jungwon Lee (proper) and PL Huiwon Je (left) of the Modem Improvement Workforce try to enhance the event efficiency of mobile modems.


Samsung is conducting area checks in nations world wide to enhance service protection as a lot as doable and making varied efforts to enhance the baseband sign processing methodology, together with using synthetic intelligence (AI) expertise to extend transmission speeds. Because of this, the corporate efficiently created a modem that makes use of AI algorithms final 12 months, though it’s but to be commercialized. “Modems with AI expertise can promote efficiency enhancements by minimizing the processing of interference indicators or growing vitality effectivity by way of using AI processors,” mentioned Lee.


Along with 5G, Samsung is at present actively engaged on the event of 6G expertise. “Proper now, we’re centered on growing the world’s greatest 5G modem and 5G-Superior modem, and we’re getting ready for 6G modem expertise analysis in collaboration with Samsung DS America and Samsung Analysis for the approaching 6G period,” mentioned Lee. His achievements in modem sign processing expertise have been acknowledged when he was chosen as a Fellow of the IEEE.4


“6G modems are anticipated to allow 1Tbps-level speeds, help varied communication networks together with satellite tv for pc communication, and be broadly utilized in varied functions, equivalent to vehicles, IoT and AR/VR — going far past smartphones,” he mentioned. “To pave the best way for the 6G period, we should have the backing and help of assorted frequency bands, together with the terahertz (THz) band, multi-antenna help for a minimum of lots of of antennas, superior AI expertise and communication community sign effectivity expertise.


In the meantime, Lee is main the best way for Samsung as the corporate goals to create the perfect modem for Android. “We’re increasing our 5G enterprise within the brief run whereas striving to safe a number one place early on within the 6G period within the medium to long-term,” he mentioned. Samsung plans to drastically enhance the headcount of the Modem Improvement Workforce to enhance such efficiency and to develop associated enterprise markets. 



“I’m proud to be part of the event group of a serious international firm that leads modem expertise. On a extra private be aware, I discover it fascinating to see how what I realized from theories can truly be applied in lots of circumstances when utilized to merchandise,” mentioned Lee when requested why he was so drawn to modems. “In the present day, having seamless phone conversations anytime and anyplace and the high-speed web expertise have grow to be a elementary a part of life. The factor that has allowed us to expertise this handy life is modems, and the Modem Improvement Workforce is captivated with persevering with to play its function in these developments.”



Making an In depth Connectivity Surroundings That Works Rapidly and Fluidly


The 2 essential telecommunication requirements for cell wi-fi communications are mobile networks and connectivity. The mobile community represented by the 3GPP customary5 refers to telecommunication requirements equivalent to CDMA, LTE and 5G. It gives a variety of service coverages in sure bandwidths licensed for cell carriers and does this through the infrastructure of assorted base stations. Connectivity, alternatively, is represented by IEEE 802.11(Wi-Fi)/802.15 (Bluetooth, ZigBee, UWB6). It makes use of Business-Science-Medical (ISM) bandwidth that can be utilized by anybody. Connectivity follows native telecommunication requirements for indoors and gives service to all.


▲ The kinds of Wi-Fi protocols for wi-fi connection


“Mobile community” is a service with an infrastructure based mostly on mobility and is principally operated by establishing networks that cowl broad areas. However, “connectivity” gives wi-fi entry amongst units inside a brief distance with out utilizing infra-networks established by operators. This enables for the comfort of portability with out wires. Specifically, Wi-Fi boasts a sooner transmission velocity extra reliably than mobile networks over comparatively lengthy distances, particularly indoors. Because of this Wi-Fi is so broadly used for connecting cell phones, laptops and so forth. Similar to peer-to-peer (P2P), Wi-Fi is healthier for selective and intensive telecommunication that may, when vital, facilitate excessive transmission speeds. This makes it extra applicable for next-generation IoT units, equivalent to Augmented Actuality (AR) and Digital Actuality (VR) units.


Today, it’s arduous to even think about day by day life with out Wi-Fi. It’s straightforward to neglect that, simply 20 years in the past, Wi-Fi was not anticipated to grow to be essentially the most commonplace wi-fi information telecommunications expertise. Nevertheless, because the business expanded to smartphone-based expertise, the belief grew that Wi-Fi was the best methodology of response to immediately’s information site visitors explosion. Because of the decrease value of establishing and working when in comparison with mobile networks it’s a methodology that’s nonetheless rising exponentially.


In contrast to mobile techniques utilizing infra-networks, the information hyperlink vary of a Wi-Fi community can solely be prolonged up to a couple hundred meters, so it’s emphatically native. As well as, because it makes use of unlicensed bandwidth, it may be affected by interference from different telecommunication techniques, making it dangerous for supporting superior High quality of Service (QoS).7 Nevertheless, as mobile and Wi-Fi convergence expertise advances, it continues to offer an enormous comfort: an undisrupted consumer expertise. All around the world, Wi-Fi has lengthy gone past being seen as a particular expertise and is as an alternative handled extra like a public infrastructure.


“Again in 2016, a devoted group was set as much as get Wi-Fi expertise to the purpose the place it could possibly be built-in into the Exynos processor,” mentioned Joonsuk Kim, Govt Vice President of the Connectivity Improvement Workforce. Kim was the group chief when the Connectivity Workforce was first established when becoming a member of Samsung in 2016. “In solely about 4 to 5 years, we accomplished the event of the legacy protocols all the best way as much as the sixth era of Wi-Fi (Wi-Fi 6) by attaining technological stability and readiness. Though there was not sufficient funding or expertise, our expertise caught up in only a brief time period,” he recalled.



▲ Exynos’ Wi-Fi expertise nearing the market chief in solely six years


After its success in growing and commercializing Wi-Fi 6E, in addition to all of the earlier Wi-Fi protocols, Samsung Electronics is now growing Wi-Fi 7, which is focused for subsequent era flagship as a discrete modem. Since Wi-Fi wants to offer connection for all cell and IoT units supporting the newest protocol, it’s essential that the efficiency of all legacy protocols is improved and maintained and that the efficiency of the latest protocol is equally secured. This newest protocol Wi-Fi 7 will probably be expanded to the market from 2024. It boasts the Multi-Hyperlink Operation (MLO),8 a channel bandwidth of 320MHz and 4096QAM.9 By means of these capabilities, Wi-Fi 7 could have the benefits of sooner information transmission velocity, elevated information transmission quantity, improved energy effectivity and the flexibility to help undisrupted wi-fi connectivity, even in an setting the place customers abound.


▲ The dimensions of the Wi-Fi market is projected to develop from 4.7 billion in 2022 to six billion in 2027.
Supply: LANCOM (Survey Digital Coverage in Germany), TSR (June 2022)


With a view to additional improve the quick transmission speeds of Wi-Fi, the inner processor core must grow to be extra complicated than it at present is, and an inside reminiscence with a big capability is required.


“To make this occur, we’re staying centered on analysis and improvement of multi-processor buildings, and on securing the mental properties vital for quick transmission,” Kim mentioned. “Till now, firms in different nations have been the principle gamers main the event of Wi-Fi options. However the Wi-Fi expertise of Exynos is the one Wi-Fi answer in Korea that’s commercialized on a big scale. I’m assured that, relating to embedded Wi-Fi options for cell SoC, our expertise comes second to none,” Kim mentioned.


That is vital, as a result of, relating to Wi-Fi, solely the perfect is sweet sufficient for patrons. Though most individuals, typically, don’t understand how a lot of a complicated expertise Wi-Fi really is, they do count on to have the ability to entry quick, uninterrupted Wi-Fi virtually wherever they’re.


“Many customers acknowledge revolutions in mobile networks, such because the LTE and 5G, as superior applied sciences, because of their commercial as main options of telephones in cell carriers’ lively advertising,” mentioned Kim. “Nevertheless, in contrast, individuals don’t fairly appear to acknowledge how rapidly Wi-Fi expertise is evolving.”


▲EVP Joonsuk Kim has been engaged on connectivity expertise for 20 years.


Nevertheless, when requested if he thinks the function of Wi-Fi will nonetheless be vital sooner or later, Kim was determined.


“The info transmitted by way of Wi-Fi nowadays makes up 70 to 80%10 of general wi-fi information site visitors,” he mentioned. “Mobile networks and connectivity expertise pursue totally different utilization situations and this isn’t more likely to change any time quickly. Wi-Fi expertise and mobile expertise ought to advance collectively by complementing one another. Because the function of knowledge expertise (IT) turns into extra vital in our lives, the flexibility to reduce dead-zones and supply secure connections and quick information companies indoors will grow to be crucial for Wi-Fi expertise.”



To totally faucet into future applied sciences like augmented actuality (AR), digital actuality (VR) and the metaverse, quick velocity and low latency are essential.


“Wi-Fi makes use of low-frequency bandwidth, equivalent to 2.4GHz, 5GHz and 6GHz,” Kim defined. “So the diffraction is comparatively greater, and this permits the quick, secure transmission of knowledge.”


As 320MHz frequency turned usable with the provision of 6GHz bandwidth, connections between units with ultra-fast and low-latency could possibly be achieved even sooner than initially anticipated. Kim emphasised the function of Wi-Fi development on this course of. On the identical time, the Connectivity Improvement Workforce developed and accomplished the commercialization of the newest specification (BT5.2), Bluetooth and GNSS that efficiently entered the Flagship by making use of L5 satellite tv for pc and sensor correction expertise for high-performance positioning, and lately indoor positioning with accuracy inside a number of centimeters. Kim defined that if UWB expertise, which has been developed for measurement and is in preparation for its first business use, will be mixed, it may possibly exert sturdy energy in lots of high-spec IoT companies and functions sooner or later.


“To assist our newest merchandise lead the market customary, to safe competitiveness and sustainability sooner or later and to verify stability and compatibility are achieved properly prematurely, I personally hope that we implement wi-fi entry factors11 and enter the related product market to take action,” Kim mentioned.



Defending Your Privateness on Smartphone: Safety That Strengthens a Separate Safety Operation Surroundings (iSE)


Smartphones play quite a lot of roles nowadays. Two notably important such roles are identification playing cards and wallets. Take biometrics, cell identification (eID) and Samsung Pay, for instance. These companies typically require customers to confirm their id, and there may be all the time the likelihood that hacking can happen within the technique of consumer verification. As such, a stage of safety that goes past the software program stage is known as for, which implies it’s required on the {hardware} stage and even in semiconductors.


The semiconductor that gives safety in smartphones is known as the Safe Factor (SE) semiconductor. There’s a separate embedded Safe Factor (eSE) situated outdoors the SoC, however, with Exynos 2020, an built-in Safe Factor (iSE) is embedded within the safety block contained in the SoC.


“The identify now we have given to the undertaking that focuses on iSE embedded in Exynos is ‘STRONG,’ which is an abbreviation of Safe Tamper-Resistant of Subsequent Era,” mentioned Jongwoo Lee, Vice President of the Design Platform Improvement Workforce. “The iSE is a separate setting inside the SoC that operates safety applications. The iSE performs not solely the function of the eSE which will be individually embedded on the skin however it may possibly management the safety of the SoC as properly. Superior processing means it boasts excessive efficiency, and it additionally permits protected enlargement to exterior reminiscence, equivalent to DRAM and Flash. These many roles will be taken even additional and shield the SoC within the lively safety module.”


▲ (From left) Keunyoung Park from the AP S/W Improvement Workforce, VP Jongwoo Lee, PL Bogyeong Kang and Sunghyun Kim from the Design Platform Improvement Workforce are doing their utmost to strengthen the safety setting in cell units.


The iSE is used for machine safety and safety companies. Machine safety is concentrated on strengthening the safety of the machine itself, and safety companies are centered on the data of customers that’s held inside cell units, like cell identification, fee and automotive keys.


“Initially of this 12 months, we completed the PoC (Proof of Idea) and succeeded in growing the iSIM,12 essentially the most relevant service utilizing iSE,” Lee mentioned. “This was a results of shut cooperation between Samsung Analysis, which is in control of the iSE Safe OS (Camelia), and the digital safety firm Thales, which is in cost of growing the iSIM Utility.”


The iSIM is an upgraded model of the embedded SIM (eSIM) and it integrates the operate of the SIM inside the SoC. This gives comfort for customers as a result of it permits them to alter their cell service with out altering their SIM card, have greater than two telephone numbers without delay and make use of assorted cell service companies on one machine. From the angle of smartphone producers, the iSIM gives benefits as properly, as a result of it lets them take away the SIM card slot and scale back the house wanted for components: iSIM will be operated inside the SoC with out a separate semiconductor, as is the case with discrete eSIM.


▲uSIM, eSIM and iSIM dimension comparability


What makes the event of the iSIM so important is the acute issue builders encounter in assembly the technological setting necessities for embedding iSIM.


“The iSIM wants to satisfy International System for Cell Communications (GSMA) necessities,” mentioned Lee. “Meaning embedding the iSIM over the OS software program and {hardware} above a sure safety stage, a stage referred to as CC EAL4+.13 Nevertheless, now we have {hardware} that operates one stage greater than this guideline: CC EAL5+. We even have safe exterior reminiscence the place massive SIM profiles will be embedded.”



“We’re the one firm that may present each the eSE and iSE, that are the idea for the eSIM and iSIM,” Lee continued. “So we will present options that smartphone producers can simply and flexibly undertake. Personally, I consider there isn’t a such factor as ‘good’ within the space of safety, however we’re working arduous to get as near good as is technologically doable. Our groups will proceed to make fixed effort in offering a high-level safety operation setting that may accommodate the various totally different security measures totally different platforms present.”



1 Digital communication: A technique of changing an analog sign right into a digital sign, transmitting it to the opposite get together and changing it again into an analog sign that may be acknowledged by people. Excessive-quality and large-capacity communication are doable in comparison with analog communication.

2 Cell broadband: A expertise that gives high-speed multimedia Web companies to cell units equivalent to smartphones and pill PCs.

3 New Radio (NR): A 5th era cell communication expertise. Consists of sub-6 GHz and mmWave (millimeter wave, excessive frequency band of 24-100 GHz band). Though mmWave has the benefits of ultra-high velocity, ultra-low latency and super-connectivity, it has the drawback of poor diffraction.

4 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE): An American affiliation {of electrical} and digital engineers and the world’s largest technical group.

5 3rd Era Partnership Challenge (3GPP): A cell communication standardization expertise cooperation group based in December 1998 to ascertain worldwide requirements associated to wi-fi communication, equivalent to GSM, WCDMA, GPRS and LTE.

6 Extremely-Wideband (UWB): A way that lowers most transmit energy to lower than -41.3 dBm/MHz in order to not interrupt different wi-fi. Nevertheless, it makes use of broad bandwidth (500MHz) to realize comparably excessive information charges.

7 High quality of Service (QoS): This refers back to the assure of communication service high quality, delay time or information loss charge under a sure stage on the community. It additionally refers to a communication service stage agreed or outlined prematurely. In different phrases, it’s a generic time period for varied applied sciences that intelligently match the transmission demand of assorted functions to a given community useful resource by allocating community sources equivalent to bandwidth and precedence with the intention to ship information to a vacation spot rapidly, at a continuing velocity and reliably.

8 Multi-Hyperlink Operation (MLO): The expertise that operates varied channels of various frequency bandwidths on the identical time.

9 4096 QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation): A modulation methodology for transmitting information by shifting and adjusting the amplitude and section of the in-phase service sign and quadrature-phase service sign. It’s advantageous when a considerable amount of information must be transmitted in a slender transmission bandwidth. 12bits per image in a 4096QAM

10 Supply: <Cisco VNI predicts brilliant future for Wi-Fi in direction of 2022> February 22, 2019

11 Wi-fi Entry Level: The low-power wi-fi machine that performs the function of a base station in wi-fi LAN. Additionally it is known as a Wi-Fi extender, Wi-Fi amplifier or wi-fi extender.

12 iSIM (built-in SIM): A built-in subscriber identification module. Additionally referred to as ieUICC (built-in embedded common built-in circuit card)

13 Frequent Standards Analysis Assurance Degree (CC EAL): Frequent Standards (CC) is a world customary for evaluating the safety of IT merchandise and sure web sites. Analysis Assurance Degree (EAL) is a grade that’s assigned to analysis assurance.

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